Kpss Test. This can lead to misinterpretations about the stationarity which. This is white noise around a trend so it is definitely a stationary process but has a trend.
K. I have done a simple test using cars a default matrix on R. The test statistic is tφ1 φˆ 1 SEφˆ where ˆφ is the least squares estimate and SEˆφ is the usual standard error estimate1.
K. If yt is stationary ie φ. X t t P i t u i t which then dominates the long term. Carsdist KPSS Trend 00859 Truncation lag parameter 1 p-value 01 kstatistic KPSS.